forests & finance

The banks and investors exposed to deforestation risks in Southeast Asia

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See the impacts
Photo: Ulet Ifansasti / Wildlife Asia / RAN /
Racing Extinction

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Search our database to discover the link between big banks, investors and forest-risk companies

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finance type bank/investor region /country Bank/Investor Country Forest-risk group Forest-risk client Forest Risk Client Country amount (USD million) year Forest-risk sector

Search total (USD million)

Corporate loans & underwriting by country and sector, 2010-2015 (USD billion)

Banks from Malaysia, China, Japan, Indonesia, Singapore and Europe are the biggest financiers of 50 selected forest-risk sector companies in Southeast Asia

Corporate loans & underwriting by sector, 2010-2015 (USD billion)

The majority of corporate loans & underwriting were provided to the palm oil sector between 2010 and 2015, followed by the pulp & paper, rubber and timber sectors

Bond & shareholdings by sector,
April 2016

The majority of bonds & shares in the 50 selected forest-risk sector companies in Southeast Asia were attributable to the palm oil sector in 2016


Bond & shareholdings by investor country in April 2016 (USD billion)

The highest level of bonds and shares in the 50 selected forest-risk sector companies in Southeast Asia were made by Malaysian investors, with the majority of investments attributable to palm oil

Top 15 bond & shareholders by sector in April 2016 (USD billion)

Investors from Malaysia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Singapore are the biggest bond and shareholders in the 50 selected forest-risk companies in Southeast Asia – Malaysian pension funds are among the biggest investors


Top 15 loan & underwriting providers by sector, 2010-2015 (USD billion)

Malayan Banking, CIMB, Mizuho Financial, HSBC & DBS were the biggest financiers of the 50 selected forest-risk sector companies between 2010 and 2015

view the bank profiles

See which banks are most involved and how their environmental and social policies stack up - click on a bank to find out more

Bank Bank/Investor Country Total value of loans,
credit & underwriting
2010-2015 (USD million)
Policy Assessment Policy Score
(out of 30)

    See the impacts

    Explore the stories to uncover the deforestation and human rights abuses linked to some bank and investor finance


    Indofood (Salim Group)

    Rainforest clearance and violations of community and worker rights

    IOI BSS aerial 2014_resize2

    IOI Group

    Community land conflicts, rainforest destruction and RSPO suspensions


    PT Korintiga Hutani

    Displacement of villagers, community conflicts and use of fire to clear land



    Read the briefing to find out more about the role banks and investors play in deforestation

    Forests & Finance Brochure Bank Policy Matrix Banks Haze Crisis Letter


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    About this project

    This website aims to highlight the role that finance plays in enabling tropical deforestation. It is the result of extensive research and investigations by a coalition of campaign and research organisations including Rainforest Action Network, TuK INDONESIA, and Profundo. Collectively, these organisations and their allies seek to achieve improved financial sector policies and systems that prevent financial institutions from supporting the kind of environmental and social abuses that are all too common in the operations of their forest-risk sector clients. For more information on this project please contact forestsandfinance@ran.org.



    This project assessed the financial services received by a selection of 50 major companies directly involved in the production or primary processing of palm oil, pulp & paper, rubber and tropical timber, whose operations impact natural tropical forests in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Financial databases Thomson EIKON and Bloomberg, as well as publicly available company reports, were used to identify corporate loans, credit and underwriting facilities provided to the 50 selected companies in the period 2010-2015. Investments in bonds and shares of the selected companies were identified through Thomson EIKON and Bloomberg at the most recently available filing date in April 2016. This data provides a deal-level dataset of specific relationships between selected companies and any linked financial institution.

    Companies with business activities outside of the forest sector had recorded amounts reduced to more accurately present the proportion of financing that can be reasonably attributed to the forest-risk sector production or primary processing operations of the selected company. Where available financial information did not specify the purpose of investment or receiving division within the parent company group, reduction factors were individually calculated by comparing a company’s forest-risk sector activities relative to its parent group total activities.

    The commercial banks identified in this study were evaluated to determine the strength of any publicly-available policies relevant to tropical forest-sector investment decision-making, and subsequently scored against a range of criteria incorporating environmental, social and governance standards. Each of the major banks was allocated a score on the scope of its policies and its environmental and social standards.

    The data and assessments presented in this website have not been provided by or authorized by any of the financial institutions or clients concerned. While every attempt has been made to research and present data and assessments accurately and objectively, it is difficult to guarantee complete accuracy. This is not least because of the lack of consistency and transparency in how financial institutions and forest-risk sector clients record key financial and company information. Where there has been ambiguity in source information of financial services, the authors of this website have acted cautiously, resulting in a likely underestimation of the true amounts of finance involved. The authors are committed to correcting any identified errors at the earliest opportunity.

    Top 5 Forest-risk clients
    Client Amount (USD Million)
    Assets (USD Billion)

    Policy Assessment

    Policy Overview

    Scope of commitments

    Environmental standards

    Social standards

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